Unlike last year, the government did not report how many victims it identified during the reporting period, nor did it provide agency-specific data, although media reports indicated authorities continued to remove some victims from their exploitative situations. Traffickers reportedly use fraudulent job opportunities to lure foreign women to come to China. African and South American women are promised legitimate jobs in China and forced into prostitution upon arrival. The government provided anti-trafficking training to its troops prior to their deployment abroad as part of international peacekeeping missions and to its diplomatic personnel. The judicial system did not require victims to testify against their traffickers in court and allowed prosecutors to submit previously recorded statements as evidence. Forced begging by adults and children occurs throughout China. In compliance with a UN Security Council Resolution, the government reportedly repatriated some North Korean labor migrants; they were not screened for trafficking indicators or offered options to legally remain in the country. The men – sometimes in partnership with their parents – often incur large debts to cover these fees, which they attempt to recover by subjecting the "brides" to forced labor or prostitution. In August, the vice mayor of Dongguan and a former member of the National People’s Congress were sentenced to life imprisonment for their involvement in “organizing prostitution” in 2014, but it was unclear whether the criminal acts involved trafficking offenses. Among other issues, the report cited "forced and fraudulent marriages" of foreign women in China. Victims were legally entitled to request criminal prosecution and claim financial restitution through civil lawsuits against their traffickers; the government did not report whether any victims benefitted from this provision. The Supreme People's Procuratorate (SPP) and the SPC reported providing anti-trafficking training for law enforcement or judicial officials at the city and provincial levels without providing detailed information on these efforts, including whether they were held with the assistance of international organizations. There are also reports of Chinese men and their parents deceiving Southeast Asian women and girls into fraudulent marriages in China, then confining them in forced concubinism for the purpose of pregnancy. Authorities continued to detain North Korean asylum-seekers and forcibly returned some to North Korea, where they faced severe punishment or death, including in North Korean forced labor camps; it was unclear whether the government screened these individuals for indicators of trafficking. Congolese men and boys experience conditions indicative of forced labor in Chinese-owned mining operations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. However, observers noted this assistance was ad hoc, and even less prevalent among front-line officers working farther inland, where some foreign victims escaped, reported these abusive circumstances to the authorities, and were summarily arrested and forcibly returned to their Chinese "husbands." China’s internal migrant population, estimated to exceed 180 million people, is vulnerable to trafficking, with Chinese men, women, and children subjected to forced labor in brick kilns, coal mines, and factories, some of which operate illegally and take advantage of lax government enforcement. China’s internal migrant population, estimated to exceed 180 million people, is vulnerable to trafficking, with Chinese men, women, and children subjected to forced labor in brick kilns, coal mines, and factories, some of which operate illegally and … However, PRC authorities attempted on multiple occasions to formally extradite these individuals and charge them as criminals, raising further concerns on China's screening and identification measures. The government did not provide sentencing data, but media reports indicated imposed penalties ranged from five months imprisonment with fines of 74,000 renminbi (RMB) ($11,380) to life imprisonment. The government reported maintaining at least 10 shelters specifically dedicated to care for trafficking victims, as well as eight shelters for foreign trafficking victims and more than 2,300 multi-purpose shelters nationwide that could accommodate trafficking victims. Article 359 criminalized harboring prostitution or seducing or introducing others into prostitution, and prescribed a maximum of five years imprisonment and a fine; for the seduction of girls younger than the age of 14 into "prostitution," it prescribed a sentence of five years or more and a fine. Article 240 of the criminal code criminalized "abducting and trafficking of women or children," which it defined as a series of acts (e.g., abduction, kidnapping, purchasing, selling, sending, receiving) for the purpose of selling women and children; however, it did not link these acts to a purpose of exploitation as defined in international law. However, state-sponsored forced labor continued to be an area of concern. Some Chinese men are reportedly circumventing this brokerage system by traveling to Southeast Asian capitals and entering into legal marriages with local women and girls, then returning to China and subjecting them to forced prostitution. Authorities detained women arrested on suspicion of prostitution—sometimes for months—and often forcibly returned foreign victims to their trafficking circumstances after they escaped and reported their abuses. Despite the existence of these procedures, and contrary to the aforementioned policy, law enforcement officials continued to arrest and detain foreign women on suspicion of prostitution crimes without screening them for indicators of sexual exploitation – sometimes for as long as four months – before deporting them for immigration violations. Provincial government efforts in 2016 to "legitimize" unregistered marriages between foreign women and Chinese men – a trend that was often permissive or generative of trafficking – were ongoing at the end of the reporting period. Academics and experts noted the gender imbalance created by the previous one child policy likely continued to contribute to trafficking crimes in China. Last Updated: Friday, 15 January 2021, 09:32 GMT, 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness, Survivors of trafficking / Persons at risk of trafficking. The Government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; therefore China remained on Tier 3. Chinese men, women, and children are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking in at least 57 other countries. PROSECUTION. Women and girls are kidnapped or recruited through marriage brokers and transported to China, where some are subjected to commercial sex or forced labor. This Group page is meant to play a big role in stopping human trafficking. Slavery is still a live issue today. Authorities attempted to extradite Chinese and Taiwan individuals abroad – some of whom were reportedly victims of forced labor – and charge them as criminals. Women and children from China are trafficked to Africa, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East, and North America, predominantly Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia, and Japan for commercial sexual exploitation and forced labour. Women and girls are kidnapped or recruited through marriage brokers and transported to China, where some are subjected to commercial sex or forced labor. However, based on China’s nonstandard definition of trafficking—which may include migrant smuggling, child abduction, forced marriage, and fraudulent adoption—the exact number of investigations, prosecutions, and convictions remained unclear. In China alone, there are tens of thousands of disappearances every year (Wang et al., 2018). The government continued to provide some law enforcement data. Unlike last year, the Ministry of Public Security (MPS) did not report the number of investigations initiated into possible trafficking cases (1,004 in 2016), although media reports suggest authorities continued to investigate some cases. Forced begging by adults and children occurs throughout China. Illicit brokers increasingly facilitate the forced and fraudulent marriage of South Asian, Southeast Asian, and African women and girls to Chinese men for fees of up $30,000. The government maintained efforts to prevent trafficking. Coordinator for the Arctic Region, Bureaus and Offices Reporting Directly to the Secretary, Office of the Coordinator for Cyber Issues, Office of the U.S. Officials detain foreign women fleeing abuse, to include sex and labor trafficking, experienced in relation to their forced or fraudulent marriages to Chinese men; many of these women remain in detention for months before authorities repatriate them—or in some cases return them to their abusive circumstances. Unlike last year, the Ministry of Public Security (MPS) did not report the number of investigations initiated into possible trafficking cases (1,004 in 2016), although media reports suggest authorities continued to investigate some cases. Article 244 criminalized forcing a person “to work by violence, threat or restriction of personal freedom” and recruiting, transporting, or otherwise assisting in forcing others to labor, and prescribed three to 10 years imprisonment and a fine. Vietnam reported 60 human trafficking cases in the first half of 2020, with 90 victims, mainly women and children, sold to foreign countries like China. Unlike last year, the government did not report how many victims it identified during the reporting period, nor did it provide agency-specific data, although media reports indicated authorities continued to remove some victims from their exploitative situations. Protecting states’ security against human trafficking is also about helping them fight other associated crimes, including smuggling, prostitution, organ trafficking, and money laundering. Article 241 criminalized the purchase of women or children; like article 240, it did not require that the purchase be done for the purpose of exploitation. Access to specialized care depended heavily on victims’ location and gender, and the extent to which victims benefited from these services was unknown. State-sponsored forced labor continued to be an area of concern in China. The government continued to provide some law enforcement data. The government did not report the number of investigations, prosecutions, or convictions involving cases of children or disabled persons forced to beg or engage in other illegal activities; however, according to media reports, county- and provincial-level authorities investigated at least 24 cases of disabled persons who may have been abducted or transferred for the purpose of sexual or labor exploitation. Penalties prescribed for sex trafficking offenses under articles 240, 241, 358, and 359 were sufficiently stringent and commensurate with the penalties prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. The government closed most RTL facilities by October 2015; however, the government reportedly converted some RTL facilities into state-sponsored drug rehabilitation facilities or administrative detention centers where, according to unverified reports, forced labor continues. However, state-sponsored forced labor continued to be an area of concern. Chinese men reportedly engage in child sex tourism in Cambodia. 2018 Trafficking in Persons Report - China RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CHINA. It continued to report statistics for crimes outside the definition of human trafficking according to international law, making it difficult to assess progress. In 2013, the National People’s Congress ratified a decision to abolish “Re-education through labor” (RTL), a punitive system in which individuals were subjected to extra-judicial detention involving forced labor, from which the government reportedly profited. Chinese men in Africa and South America experience abuse at construction sites, in coal and copper mines, and in other extractive industries where they face conditions indicative of forced labor such as non-payment of wages, restrictions on movement, withholding of passports, and physical abuse. Vietnamese teen's escape from the China trafficking trade that sold her mother. A 2016 policy limiting the detention of such individuals to 72 hours remained in place. However, observers noted this assistance was ad hoc, and even less prevalent among front-line officers working farther inland, where some foreign victims escaped, reported these abusive circumstances to the authorities, and were summarily arrested and forcibly returned to their Chinese “husbands.” Because the national referral mechanism was not universally implemented across law enforcement efforts, it was likely that unidentified Chinese trafficking victims were also detained following arrest for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of having been subjected to trafficking. The government hukou (household registration) system continued to contribute to the vulnerability of internal migrants by limiting employment opportunities and reducing access to social services, particularly for Chinese victims returning from exploitation broad. Human Rights. Many scholars have been dedicated to studying the missing population and their transfer paths, mainly focusing on cross-border transfer, policies, legal developments, and law enforcement issues ( Obokata, 2005 ). Provincial government efforts in 2016 to “legitimize” unregistered marriages between foreign women and Chinese men—a trend that was often permissive or generative of trafficking—were ongoing at the end of the reporting period. Article 358 criminalized forced prostitution and prescribed penalties of five to 10 years imprisonment. Chinese men in Africa and South America experience abuse at construction sites, in coal and copper mines, and in other extractive industries, where they face conditions indicative of forced labor, such as non-payment of wages, restrictions on movement, withholding of passports, and physical abuse. The government did not report the number of investigations, prosecutions, or convictions involving cases of children or disabled persons forced to beg or engage in other illegal activities; however, according to media reports, county- and provincial-level authorities investigated at least 24 cases of disabled persons who may have been abducted or transferred for the purpose of sexual or labor exploitation. MPS reportedly sent 350,000 police officers to public schools to educate children about the risks of exploitation. As reported over the past five years, China is a source, destination, and transit country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking. Some are promised jobs abroad and confined to private homes upon arrival overseas, held in conditions indicative of forced labor, and compelled to conduct telephone scams. Foreign embassies in China reportedly provided shelter or other protective services to victims. Authorities held a third annual inter-ministerial meeting to coordinate anti-trafficking efforts. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States. However, PRC authorities attempted on multiple occasions to formally extradite these individuals and charge them as criminals, raising further concerns on China’s screening and identification measures. As in prior years, the vast majority of these cases were not prosecuted under section 240 of the criminal code, and were instead tried under article 358 – especially for those involving sexual exploitation. Article 358 criminalized forced prostitution and prescribed penalties of five to 10 years imprisonment. It is reported that human trafficking impacts 236 million people in China and Chinese trafficking victims have been transported and found on every single continent around the world. Chinese men reportedly engage in child sex tourism in Cambodia. Traffickers target persons with developmental disabilities and children whose parents have left them with relatives to migrate to the cities—estimated at more than 60 million—and subject them to forced labor and forced begging. The government maintained insufficient law enforcement efforts. Chinese men, women, and girls are forced to labor in restaurants, shops, agriculture, and factories in overseas Chinese communities. Although there were no confirmed reports of forced labor in Xinjiang during the reporting year, human rights organizations previously expressed concerns about forced labor under the "hashar" system of compulsory agricultural labor and under the auspices of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps – an economic and paramilitary organization with administrative control over several cities in the province. According to some reports, the Chinese government has also detained tens of thousands – and possibly hundreds of thousands – of Uighurs and sent them to special facilities for the purpose of "political reeducation." Some law enforcement personnel in neighboring countries reported their Chinese counterparts were unresponsive to requests for bilateral cooperation on cross-border trafficking cases. During the reporting period, the government increased its consultative partnerships with Lao and Vietnamese law enforcement authorities to jointly address trafficking via the forced and fraudulent marriage of their citizens to Chinese individuals. Women and children from Myanmar, Vietnam, Mongolia, former USSR (except for Baltic Sta… Access to specialized care depended heavily on victims' location and gender, and the extent to which victims benefited from these services was unknown. The men—sometimes in partnership with their parents—often incur large debts to cover these fees, which they attempt to recover by subjecting the “brides” to forced labor or prostitution. These penalties were sufficiently stringent. Women and children from neighboring Asian countries, Africa, and the Americas are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking in China. The government handled most cases with indicators of forced labor as administrative issues through the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Services and seldom initiated prosecutions of such cases under anti-trafficking statutes. Well-organized criminal syndicates and local gangs play key roles in the trafficking of Chinese women and girls in China, recruiting victims with fraudulent employment opportunities and subsequently forcing them into commercial sex. Chinese women and girls are subjected to sex trafficking within China. Xi Jinping. An official website of the United States government, Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, Office of the U.S. It attempted to reduce the demand for commercial sex through its ongoing crackdown on corruption and high profile arrests of men soliciting or procuring prostitution. 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